When high axial load capacities are needed and envelope space is minimal, needle thrust bearings are an option. These bearings consist of a stamped or machined cage and rollers. The cage retaining the rollers is paired with thrust washers that act as raceways. Thrust bearings can be used without thrust washers when the faces of adjacent machine components can serve as raceways, allowing the machine to be even more compact. These bearings provide a high degree of stiffness and are most suitable where high accuracy is required at high speeds and under fluctuating heavy loads, such as machine tools and high-pressure pumps.